Chiffres

L’Afrique doit créer 20 millions d’emplois par an pendant 20 ans, selon le FMI

Par Jeune Afrique avec AFP  | 

Pour doubler la création annuelle d'emplois, l'organisation internationale appelle les décideurs africains à investir notamment dans les systèmes éducatifs.

Vingt millions, c’est le nombre d’emplois nets que doit créer chaque année l’Afrique subsaharienne au cours des vingt prochaines années pour « absorber les nouveaux arrivants sur les marchés du travail », estime le Fonds monétaire international (FMI). Dans son étude sur « les flux de capitaux et l’avenir de l’emploi » en Afrique subsaharienne, publiée le 8 novembre, elle estime que seuls 10 millions d’emplois nets sont actuellement créés chaque années dans la région.

Adéquation formation-emploi

Pour y parvenir, les experts du FMI préconisent aux décideurs d’investir davantage dans les « système éducatifs flexibles » pour favoriser « la capacité d’adaptation et de formation tout au long de la vie ». L’étude conseille également de travailler à « approfondir l’intégration commerciale » en vue de faire émerger « un grand marché intérieur ».

D’autre part, les experts du FMI recommandent la promotion d’une « urbanisation intelligente » afin de rendre les villes plus « fonctionnelles » et de « favoriser la connectivité » numérique pour l’essor de « nouvelles formes d’activité économiques ».

>> LIRE AUSSI : Afrique : les chiffres de l’emploi informel en 2018

Croissance

L’objectif, passer à terme à une croissance moyenne de 6 % entre 2018 et 2022 contre 4 % retenus par le FMI dans son scénario de référence. La tendance pourrait alors faire progresser l’emploi de 0,6 à 0,8 point de pourcentage à moyen terme et booster la création nette à « environ 16 millions de postes par an d’ici à 2022 », explique l’étude.

>> LIRE AUSSI : Afrique : les chiffres pour comprendre le chômage des jeunes

Quatrième révolution industrielle

S’intéressant à la dernière vague de progrès technologique sur la région, surnommée parfois « quatrième révolution industrielle », le rapport estime qu’elle « pourrait augmenter la productivité » de la région lui permettant de « se passer de technologies obsolètes et de certaines infrastructures ».

Elle prévient dans le même temps que celle-ci pourrait tout autant « créer des problèmes », en favorisant la relocalisation d’activités manufacturières vers les pays avancés », ce qui compromettrait « le modèle traditionnel de croissance tiré par les exportations ».

« L’enjeu pour les décideurs » consiste donc à « conserver une attitude ouverte à l’égard des différentes stratégies de croissance », prévient le rapport.

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