Chiffres

Tunisie : les chiffres discordants sur l’émigration des enseignants-chercheurs

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La Tunisie aurait perdu 4 000 enseignants-chercheurs en 2018. Relayé par plusieurs sites d'information ces derniers jours, ce chiffre n'est pas tout à fait exact.

Le chiffre est relayé ces derniers jours par plusieurs site d’information tunisien. Selon une étude publiée par l’Union des enseignants universitaires et chercheurs tunisiens (Ijaba), basée selon elle  sur les chiffres de l’Agence tunisienne de coopération technique (ATCT) et du secrétariat d’État à l’Immigration et aux Tunisiens à l’étranger, 4 000 enseignants-chercheurs de l’université publique auraient quitté le pays en 2018. Un chiffre important au regard d’un effectif d’enseignants-chercheurs qui, selon les derniers recensement de 2016, comptait un peu plus de 22 500 professionnels.

Exil temporaire

Contacté par Jeune Afrique Emploi & Formation, Nejmeddine Jouida, coordinateur général national de l’Ijaba rectifie en précisant que 4 000 enseignants-chercheurs ont quitté la Tunisie entre 2011 et 2018. Ces départs concernent des enseignants ayants contracté des contrats à durée déterminée donc destinés à revenir dans deux ou cinq ans.

4 000 enseignants-chercheurs ont quitté la Tunisie entre 2011 et 2018.

« À partir de 2011, on a observé chez les enseignants-chercheurs une vague de départs importante vers les pays du Golfe et ceux de l’Europe », remarque Nejmeddine Jouida qui l’explique par « la dégradation de la situation financière des enseignants du public et celle des conditions de recherche dont le budget s’est effondré de 75 % ».

Selon l’association, cette situation pousse les enseignants du public à assurer des cours dans des écoles privées qui profitent de leur précarité. Par la voie d’un communiqué publié jeudi, l’Ijaba a décidé d’appeler les professeurs du secteur public à ne pas enseigner dans le secteur privé à la rentrée « pour sauvegarder l’image et le prestige de l’enseignant universitaire ».

En 2017, le ministère de l’Enseignement supérieur tunisien a affirmé que 1 800 départs d’enseignants-chercheurs ont eu lieu entre 2014 et 2017.

L’ATCT dément

De son côté, l’ATCT ne reconnaît pas avoir publié ce chiffre, ni participé à l’étude de l’Ijaba. Selon ses chiffres, 2 201 enseignants travaillent actuellement à l’étranger dans le cadre de la coopération technique. Selon la même source entre 2011 et 2018, 2 223 enseignants ont quitté le pays et 588 sont revenus. Le secrétariat d’État à l’immigration, lui, n’a jusqu’ici pas répondu aux sollicitations de JA.

Pour rappel, en 2017, le ministère de l’Enseignement supérieur tunisiens a affirmé que 1 800 départs d’enseignants-chercheurs ont eu lieu entre 2014 et 2017. Et selon les chiffres de l’ATCT, sur la période 2011-2016, les effectifs d’enseignants-chercheurs du secteur public ont augmenté de seulement 238 personnes.

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